Technical Information

Intermodulation Distortion in RF Connectors


Intermodulation distortion occurs when two or more signals occupy the same transmission paths as in full duplex systems. When the signals mix, a non-linear response manifests itself as bi-products of the fundamental frequency called intermodulation distortion or IMD. These unwanted signals typically show up in the receive band and can block a channel. The base station can interpret the carrier as being present when in fact it is not. IMD was typically not a concern at low power levels because the filtering components in the system would minimize the effects. IMD signals primarily show up on the transmit side usually between the diplexer and the antenna. With no filtering on these transmission paths, the distorted signals made their way to the receive end. With improved materials, technology and test equipment, solutions for reducing the effects are now possible. Click to read more

Why use White Bronze Plating?

DIN adapter

White Bronze plating for RF connectors offers many advantages over Nickel or Silver plated connectors. Improved electrical and intermodulation performance, better wear characteristics in harsh conditions and low insertion loss compared to Nickel are just a few. Although Silver has been the preferred finish with outstanding electrical characteristics, it pales in comparison to white bronze mostly due to the corrosive and the tarnish effects of Silver oxide. Click to read more

Improving Measurement Accuracy for High Frequency RF Connectors

18Ghz Test Cables

Improving the accuracy of your microwave test and measurement equipment becomes increasingly important when high frequency devices are used in the transmission paths of radio, cellular, satellite and digital communications. This discussion helps to solve problems with measurement errors during and after calibration of your microwave test instrument. Click to read more

Insertion Phase Errors in Long Lengths of Coaxial Cable Assemblies


If you have ever tried to measure a long length of cable, you may have noticed the insertion loss (S21,S12) display showing an abrupt change at some frequency in the negative direction or scale. I call this change in transmission loss “cliffing” as if you were looking down a cliff. If not corrected during the calibration stage, this additional loss would add to the total system loss which is erroneous to the actual insertion loss of the cable assembly. Click to read more